I am indebted to the friends, colleagues, librarians, and research assistants who made this book possible. Special thanks go to David Engel, Fred Konefsky, and Dianne Avery, who took time to read the manuscript closely and offer important and insightful suggestions. Research assistants Tara Ward, Rebecca Kujawa, Sarah Handley-Cousins, Megan Furrer, and Danielle Okst provided invaluable assistance with research and notes. The amazing librarians at the SUNY Buffalo Law School—Joe Gerken, Nina Cascio, John Mondo, Marcia Zubrow—are to be commended for their patience with my numerous requests. Research for this book was made possible by a generous grant from the Baldy Center for Law and Social Policy at the SUNY Buffalo Law School. My deepest gratitude goes to Mike Scanlon, who has listened to these ideas many times for many years. My father and mother, Louis and Mie Barbas, would have been thrilled to see this book. I dedicate it to their memory.