Phonopoetics
The Making of Early Literary Recordings
Jason Camlot

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Online Materials

Recordings

Figures

Table


Recordings

Introduction

Page 1.
Alfred Tennyson, “The Charge of the Light Brigade.” Alfred Tennyson, performer, pre commercial cylinder, 1890. Source: The Poetry Archive

Page 4.
George Bernard Shaw, “Spoken English and Broken English.” George Bernard Shaw. Linguaphone, SH 1E, 12” record, 1927. Source: Author’s Collection

 

Chapter 1

Page 33.
Nightingale, Florence. “When I am no longer a memory…” Introduced by Mary Helen Ferguson, Florence Nightingale, speaker. Non-commercial brown wax cylinder, 30 July 1890. Source: Wellcome Library

Page 38.
Nelson Powers, Horatio. “The Phonograph’s Salutation.” Horatio Nelson Powers, performer. Wax cylinder, 1888. Source: Author’s collection

Page 43.
“I am The Edison Phonograph.” Len Spencer, performer. Advertising Record. Edison. Black wax cylinder, 1906. Source: UCSB Cylinder Audio Archive

Page 46.
Stembler, Sally, and Edward Meeker, “Laughing Record (Henry’s Music Lesson.” Sally Stembler and Edward Meeker, performers. Edison 51063-R, 1923. Source: Library of Congress

Page 48.
Wildhack, Robert J. “Sneezes.” Robert J. Wildhack, performer. Victor 35590-B, Shellac 12” disc, 78rpm, January 1917. Source: Author’s collection

Page 48.
Wildhack, Robert J. “Snores.” Robert J. Wildhack, performer. Victor 35590-A, Shellac 12” disc, 78rpm, January 1917. Source: Author’s collection

Page 62.
“Cohen on his Honeymoon.” Monroe Silver, performer. Edison Diamond Disc Record 7154, 1920. Source: Library of Congress

Page 63.
“Cohen on the Telephone.” Joe Hayman, performer. Columbia, A1516, 1913. Source: Author’s collection

Page 64.
“What I Heard at the Vaudeville.” Len Spencer, performer. Edison Gold Moulded Record 8693, 1904/5. Source: UCSB Cylinder Audio Archive <http://cylinders.library.ucsb.edu/>

Page 66.
“Drama in One Act.” George Graham, performer. Berliner 627Z, 1896. Source: Patrick Feaster personal collection

Page 66.
“A Study in Mimicry—Vaudeville.” Introduced by Len Spencer, John Orren and Lillian Drew, performers. Edison 50485-R, 1918. Source: Library of Congress

 

Chapter 2

Page 74.
“Uncle Tom’s Cabin (Flogging Scene).” Len Spencer, performer. Edison Standard 8656, 1904. Source: UCSB Cylinder Audio Archive <http://cylinders.library.ucsb.edu/>

Page 74.
“The Transformation Scene From Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde.” Len Spencer, performer. Columbia matrix, [1904] 1908. Source: Author’s collection

Page 76.
“Svengali Mesmerizes Trilby.” Herbert Beerbohm Tree, performer. Gramophone Concert Record, 10” Black Label Disc, GC 1313, 1906. Source: Author’s collection

Page 84.
“The Late Sir Henry Irving in The Dream Scene From ‘The Bells’ (Leopold Lewis Dramatic Recital by Bransby Williams.)” Bransby Williams, perfomer. Columbia 408, 12” disc, 1913. Source: Author’s collection

Page 84.
“A Christmas Carol in Prose (Charles Dickens: Scrooge’s awakening )(w Carol Singers [male quartet]).” Bransby Williams, performer. Edison 13353, 1905. Source: Author’s collection

Page 86.
“The Awakening of Scrooge.” Bransby Williams, performer. Edison Amberol 12378, 1911. Source: UCSB Cylinder Audio Archive <http://cylinders.library.ucsb.edu/>

Page 86.
“A Christmas Carol—Scrooge—After the Dream.” Bransby Williams, performer. Columbia 6277, 1912/1924. Source: Author’s collection.

Page 88.
“A Christmas Carol—Bob Cratchit Telling of Scrooge (Dickens).” Bransby Williams, Performer. HMV 2632f 01012, 1912. Source: Author’s collection

Page 90.
“David Copperfield (Charles Dickens—Wilkins Micawber’s Advice).” Bransby Williams, Performer. Edison cylinder 13508, 1906. No digital recording available.

Page 97.
“Micawber (from ‘David Copperfield’).” William Sterling Battis, performer. Victor 35556 B, 12” disc, 1916. Source: Author’s collection

 

Chapter 3

Page 102.
Alfred Tennyson, “The Charge of the Light Brigade.” Alfred Tennyson, performer. Non- commercial cylinder, 1890. Source: The Poetry Archive

Page 120.
Alfred Tennyson, “The Charge of the Light Brigade.” Rose Coghlan, perfomer. Victor 31728, 12” Shellac Disc, 1909. Source: Author’s Collection

Page 122.
Alfred Tennyson, “The Charge of the Light Brigade.” Edgar L. Davenport, performer. United Talking Machine Co. A1371, 10” Shellac Disc, 1913. Source: Author’s Collection

Page 122.
Alfred Tennyson, “The Charge of the Light Brigade.” Performer unknown. Emerson Phonograph Co. 755, 7” Disc, c1917. Source: Author’s Collection

Page 123.
Alfred Tennyson, “The Charge of the Light Brigade.” Lewis Waller, performer. HMV E164, c1907. Source: Author’s Collection

Page 123.
Alfred Tennyson, “The Charge of the Light Brigade.” Canon Fleming, performer. HMV E-160, 10” Shellac Disc, 1910. Source: Author’s Collection

Page 123.
Alfred Tennyson, “The Charge of the Light Brigade.” Henry Ainley, performer. The Gramophone Co., B393, 10” Disc, 1912. Source: British National Sound Archive

 

Chapter 4

NOTE: Short selections from recordings discussed in this chapter appear in the Figures section, below.

T.S. Eliot, The Waste Land. Robert Speaight, performer. New Rochelle, N.Y.: Spoken Arts, LP Record, 1956. Source: Author’s collection

T.S. Eliot, The Waste Land. T.S. Eliot, performer. Instantaneous Discs/Audio Tape, Brander Matthews Dramatic Museum Collection, Library of Congress, c1933. Source: Columbia University and Library of Congress

T. S. Eliot, T.S. Eliot Reading his Own Poems. 78 rpm mono 12” records. 1946; Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress Recording Laboratory, 1949. Source: Author’s collection

Conclusion

Page 179.
“Au Clair de la Lune.” Phonotogram 9 April 1860, Digital Sonification March 2008. Source: First Sounds <http://www.firstsounds.org/sounds/earlier-playback.php#auclair>

 


Figures

Chapter 1

Figure 1. Advertisement for “The Reginaphone” record player. Source: The Cosmopolitan (April, 1904: back matter.
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Figure 2. Advertisement from 1898 in which The Gramophone speaks a riddle. Source: Stock List.—Nov. 16th, 1898. Record Catalogue. Catalogue Collection of the Music Division, Library and Archives Canada, R13984 183.
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Figure 3. Robert J. Wildhack cartoon illustrating his own talking records, “Snores” and “Sneezes.” Source: Victor Records 1917 Catalogue, with biographical sketches, opera plots, new portraits and special Red Seal section (Camden, NJ: The Victor Talking Machine Company, November 1917, Wi.
image

 

Chapter 2

Figure 4. Photograph of Victrola used in classroom teaching. Source: Victor Record Co. Pamphlet. 1918. The Victrola in the Schools. Library and Archives Canada, Harold D. Smith fonds, MUS 113, Vol. 3, File 85.
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Figure 5. Catalogue pages depicting William Sterling Battis, “Dickens Man” recordings. Source: Victor Records Suitable for Use in the Teaching of English Literature. 1916. Library and Archives Canada, Harold D. Smith fonds, MUS 113, Vol. 9, File 253.
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Chapter 3

Figure 6. Record catalogue description of “A Dramatic Recitation by Rose Coghlan.” Source: Victor Records Catalogue (July 1910: 120.
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Figure 7. Praat interval annotation showing tremor and prolongation pitch contours in Lewis Waller’s recitation of “The Charge of the Light Brigade.”
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Figure 8. Praat interval annotation showing tremor and prolongation pitch contours in Canon Fleming’s recitation of “The Charge of the Light Brigade.”
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Figure 9. Praat interval annotation showing tremor and prolongation pitch contours in Henry Ainley’s recitation of “The Charge of the Light Brigade.”
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Figure 10. Detail depicting “degrees of force” in vocal expression. Source: Robert I. Fulton and Thomas C. Trueblood, Practical Elements of Elocution (Boston: Ginn, 1893, 148.
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Figure 11. Chart depicting vocal force, form and quality. Source: Robert I. Fulton and Thomas C. Trueblood, Practical Elements of Elocution (Boston: Ginn, 1893, 153.
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Figure 12. Praat interval annotation showing pitch contours in Henry Ainley’s delivery of the words, “he said.”
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Chapter 4

Figure 13. Multi-track comparison of wave forms, T.S. Eliot reading “The Burial of the Dead” (detail from 1946 78 rpm record (top) and 1933 instantaneous disc (bottom).
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Stereo (Left channel = 1946, Right channel = 1933)

Mono (1946)

Mono (1933)

 

Figure 14. Praat annotated visualization of Robert Speaight reading from “The Burial of the Dead” section of T.S. Eliot’s The Waste Land. Source: Poems of T.S. Eliot, Robert Speaight, performer, LP Record (New Rochelle, N.Y.: Spoken Arts, 1956.
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Figure 15. Praat annotated visualization of T.S. Eliot reading a take of “Death by Water” from The Waste Land, recorded in 1933.
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Figure 16. Praat annotated visualization of T.S. Eliot reading “Burial of the Dead” from The Waste Land, depicting “excessive intonation curves.”
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Figure 17. Praat annotated visualization of T.S. Eliot reading “Burial of the Dead” from The Waste Land, depicting “truncated intonation curves.”
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Table

T.S. Eliot’s multiple 1933 Instantaneous Disc Recordings of The Waste Land. [Table]
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