Foundations for Inquiry
Choices and Trade-Offs in the Organizational Sciences
Craig C. Lundberg and Cheri A. Young


Table of Contents for Knowledge and Money

Table of Contents for

Foundations for Inquiry



Introduction: Themes and Exemplars

††††††††††† The Orthodox Ideal of Inquiry

††††††††††† Reactions: Critical, Defensive, and Constructive

Toward Undermining Debate

Equivoque, Alternatives, and Tradeoffs

Toward Making Sense of Choices

Part One: Getting Acquainted with Inquiry

1.      Embracing Inquiry as Learning

The Guest Lecturer

Davydd J. Greenwood and Morten Levin

The Making of a Scientist

Richard P. Feynman

What Is Science?

Richard P. Feynman

Kim Encounters Atlas

Craig C. Lundberg and Cheri A. Young


2.      Mapping the Domain of Inquiry

Inquiry as Making Meanings

The Research Process

Framing Research: Models and Theories

Framing Knowledge: Philosophic Context


Part Two: The Philosophic Context of Inquiry

3.      The Frame of Paradigm

Origins, Definition, and Function

Two Dimensions, Four Paradigms

Gibson Burrell and Gareth Morgan

Paradigmatic Communities

George Ritzer

Applications to Organization Theory

Louis R. Pondy and David M. Boje

Paradigm Concerns and Development

Paradigm Shifts

Yvonne S. Lincoln


4.      Images of Human Nature

About Images

Images Throughout History

Stanford Research Institute

Social Science Images

Human Nature and Organization Theory

Ali H. Mir


5.      Choices about Reality and Knowing

The True and the Known

Ralph E. Stablein

Two Contrasting Modes of Inquiry

Roger D. Evered and Meryl Reis Louis

The Range of Core Assumptions

Gareth Morgan and Linda Smircich

Traditional Positivism

Allen S. Lee

Socially Constructed, Administrative Science Is

W. Graham Astley


6.      The Impact of Ideology and Values

Ideology Critique

Mats Alvesson and Stanley Deetz

Explanations of Ideologies

Harrison M. Trice and Janice M. Beyer

Ideologies in Organization Studies

Ralph E. Stablein

Scientific Ethos

Harriet Zuckerman

The Value-Oriented Bias of Social Inquiry

Ernest Nagel

Whose Sid e Are We On?

Howard S. Becker

Values in Inquiry

Abraham Kaplan


7.      Allegiances to Schools of Thought

Theoretical-Methodological Subcultures

An Expanding Variety: Management Schools of Thought

Richard Whitley


Part Three: Centering Inquiry: Models and Theories

8.      Models and Theories: Purposes and Reach

What a Theory Is and Is Not

Samuel B. Bacharach

What a Theory Is Not

Robert I. Sutton and Barry M. Staw

What Theory Is Not, Theorizing Is

Karl E. Weick

Comments on "What Theory Is Not"

Paul J. DiMaggio

Functions of Theories

Abraham Kaplan


9.      Patterns and Criteria of Theories

Types of Theories

Abraham Kaplan

Three Conceptions of Theory

Paul Davidson Reynolds

A Typology of Explicative Models

Roger D. Evered

Variance and Process Theories

Lawrence B. Mohr

Thorngate's Criteria and Their Tradeoffs

Karl E. Weick

Theory Evaluation Criteria

Samuel B. Bacharach


10.  Theorizing

Two Contrasting Strategies

Paul Davidson Reynolds

Theory Construction

Louis J. Bourgeois III

Strong Inference

Kenneth D. MacKenzie and Robert House


Part Four: The Research Process

11.  Inventing and Framing Research Questions

The Importance of Questions

Roger Schank

Question Creation in Organizational Research

Craig C. Lundberg

Problem-Oriented Research

Paul Lawrence

A Theory-Focused Approach

Karl E. Weick

Ploys for Question Generation

Craig C. Lundberg

That's Interesting!

Murray S. Davis


12.  Plans for Answering: Strategies and Designs

Research Strategies and the Three-Horned Dilemma

Joseph E. McGrath

Basic Designs: Features and Assessment

Eugene F. Stone

Taking Extreme Cases Seriously

Louis R. Pondy and Mary Linda Olson


William F. Dukes

Mixing Levels of Analysis

Appa Rao Korukonda


13.  Acquiring and Handling Data

Concepts Formulation Before Methods

Chimezie A.B. Osigweh, Yg.

Characteristics and Difficulties of Settings

Thomas Bouchard Jr.

The Representativeness of Phenomena

Thomas W. Lee

Breaking Up Mono-method Monopolies

Joanne Martin

Issues with Self-Reports

Philip M. Podsakoff and Dennis W. Organ

Observer Effects

Robert Rosenthal

On Removing Measurement Bipolarity

Philip Bobko


14.  Data Sensemaking

Toward Understanding Scientific Understanding

Kenneth J. Gergen and GŁn R. Semin

The Initial Examination of Data

C. Chatfield

Validity and Correlational Research

Terence R. Mitchell

Concerns About Statistical Data Analysis

Ralph L. Rosnow and Robert Rosenthal

Guidelines for Selecting a Level of Significance

Sanford Labovitz

A Few Precepts for Interpretation

Fred N. Kerlinger


15.  Sharing Research Contributions

Part Five: Living Inquiry

16.  Considerations for Inquiry's Journeys

Learning and Knowing

Linda Ford

Socialization and Identity Creation

Schulamit Reinharz

Scholarly Activities: Career Archetypes and Consequences

James G. Hunt and John D. Blair

Relationships Among Scholars

Connie J.G. Gersick, Jean M. Bartunek, and Jane E. Dutton

Mintzberg on Passion in Science

Charlie Galunic

A Scholar's Quest

James G. Marsh