Reins of Liberation
An Entangled History of Mongolian Independence, Chinese Territoriality, and Great Power Hegemony, 1911-1950
Xiaoyuan Liu


List of Maps
Part I Independence and Revolution, 1911-1945
1 China and Mongolia: From Empire to National States
Facets of the Mongolia Question
Independence for the Second Time
Ethnic Separation and National Revolution
Partisan, National, and Imperial Interests
2 "Red Protective Deity": World Revolution and Geopolitics
Bolsheviks and Mongolian Partisans
Eurasian Federation vs. Soviet Empire
Divided Nation and Split Revolution
3 Dialectics of Brotherhood: The Chinese Communist Party and the Mongolian People's Republic
Revolutionary Paradox
Rally toward Periphery
Return to Centrality
Part II Autonomy and Civil War, 1945-1950
4 "National Fever": The Genesis of an
Autonomous Movement
From Colonialism to National Fever
Liberation through Unification
Degrees of Self-Government
5 Ethnic Strategy: The Eastern Mongolian Experience
Chengde Concession
Xing'an Interval
Wangyemiao Finale
6 "Restoration": The Guomindang's Administrative Endeavor
Delusive "Frontier Administration
Abortive "Restoration
Elusive "Loyalists
7 "Liberation": The Chinese Communist Party's Interethnic Approach
Decide on a Strategy
Awake to Spontaneity
Secure "National Banner
Enact "Leftist Excessiveness
Part III Ethnicity and Hegemony, 1945-1950
8 "New Frontier":America's Encounter with Inner Mongolia
Partisan Mongols
Racial Mongols
Change of Climate
Princely Connection
9 The Range of "Wild Wind": Moscow's Inner Mongolia Stratagem
A Sense of Limits
Containing Nationalism
Hierarchy of Patronage
10 The Structure of Bloc Politics: Mao, Stalin, and Mongolian Independence
A Fractured Revolutionary Alliance
Resetting the Interstate Relationship
Between National and Bloc Interests
Mongolian Independence, Again
11 Epilogue: Territoriality, Power, and Legitimacy
A Note on Transliteration
Acronyms and Abbreviations