Managing as Designing
Richard J. Boland Jr. is Professor of Management at Case Western Reserve University and a Senior Research Associate at the Judge Institute of Management at the University of Cambridge. He was founding editor of Information and Organization and does qualitative studies of individuals as they design and use information. His interest is in how people make meaning as they interpret situations in an organization or as they interpret data in a report. He has studied this hermeneutic process in a wide range of settings and professions, but primarily has focused on how managers and consultants turn an ambiguous situation into a problem statement and declare a particular course of action to be rational. He has approached this in a variety of ways, including symbolic interaction, metaphor, cause mapping, frame shifting, language games, and exegesis. Most recently he is fascinated with narrative and design as modes of cognition that are systematically undervalued, yet dominate our meaning making.
Hilary Bradbury is an Associate Professor of Organizational Behavior at the Weatherhead School of Management at Case Western Reserve University. Three broad themes are evident in Hilary's research—deep organizational change, action research, and sustainability. Hilary is coeditor with Peter Reason of the Handbook of Action Research (Sage, 2000). A forthcoming book by the two will describe in more detail how to engage in action research in the midst of organizational life. In 2000, Hilary was awarded a multiyear NSF grant, along with three colleagues at MIT, to support an action research effort that brings together corporate practitioners, consultants, and researchers interested in speeding up the transition to sustainability of mainstream corporations.
Richard Buchanan is Professor of Design at Carnegie Mellon University where he teaches interaction design, communication planning, and the philosophy and theory of design, with a special interest in the rhetorical thinking that lies behind the human-made world. His research addresses issues of interaction design, verbal and visual communication, communication planning and design, and product development. He is coeditor of Discovering Design: Explorations in Design Studies, The Idea of Design, and Pluralism in Theory and Practice. He is also editor of the international journal Design Issues: History, Theory, Criticism.
Bo Carlsson is the William E. Umstattd Professor of Industrial Economics at the Weatherhead School of Management at Case Western Reserve University. His research interests include the new economy, entrepreneurship, technology transfer, and the nature and role of innovation systems in economic growth. Since 1987 he has been the director of the research project "Sweden's Technological Systems and Future Development Potential," involving four leading research institutes in Sweden. He has published twenty-two books and numerous articles in industrial economics, small business and entrepreneurship, technological change, and industrial policy. His most recent book, entitled Technological Systems in the Bio Industries: An International Study, was published in 2002.
Po Chung obtained his BSc from California State University at Humboldt in Fisheries Management in 1968. Upon returning to Hong Kong, he worked with Topper Toys (H.K.) Ltd. As operations manager for two years. In 1972, he cofounded DHL International Limited, together with DHL Airways Inc. of California, which owns and operates DHL services in U.S. territories. These two companies operate the DHL Worldwide Network, which is the world's leading air express company, handling more than 100 million documents, parcels, and freight a year across five continents. He is now Chairman Emeritus of DHL.
Fred Collopy is Professor and Chair of the Information Systems department at the Weatherhead School of Management at Case Western Reserve University. He has been designing instruments that enable musicians to play images in the way that musicians play sounds. His Web site at RhythmicLight.com provides illustrations and historical background on the field, whose roots can be traced to 1743 and work inspired by Newton. In 1979, Fred designed The Desk Organizer, the first desk management software for personal computers. In 1989, he designed Rule-Based Forecasting, an approach to business forecasting that used rules derived from forecasting experts to improve upon standard and best forecasting practices. His current research interest is related to how highly interactive instruments are best designed.
Nicholas Cook was appointed Professor of Music at the University of Southampton in 1990, becoming a Research Professor in 1999. A musicologist and theorist, he has previously taught at the Universities of Hong Kong (where he was on the foundation staff of the Department of Music) and Sydney, with visiting professorships at Yale University (1994) and Ohio State University (2000). He holds degrees in music and history, and much of his published work has been interdisciplinary in nature. He is editor of the Journal of the Royal Musical Association, and his research has appeared in most of the major journals in the field, covering such diverse topics at Beethoven, Liszt, analytical methodology, music in TV commercials, and the aesthetics and psychology of music. His books, most of which are published by Oxford University Press, include A Guide to Musical Analysis (1987); Music, Imagination, and Culture (1990); Beethoven: Symphony No. 9 (1993); Analysis Through Composition (1996); Analysing Musical Multimedia (1998); and Music: A Very Short Introduction (1998). Oxford also published Rethinking Music (1999), a major collaborative volume coedited with Mark Everist.
Peter Coughlan and Ilya Prokopoff are coleaders of Transformation by Design, a practice within the IDEO design consultancy that specializes in helping organizations manage complex change using design tools and methods. They are playing a leading role in developing techniques for helping cross-functional teams to rethink organizational structures to deliver them. They have taken on clients as diverse as Internet start-ups, Native American tribes, chemical manufacturers, governmental funding agencies, multinational food companies, and healthcare organizations. Peter holds a PhD in Applied Linguistics from UCLA, and Ilya holds a PhD from the Media Lab at MIT.
Barbara Czarniawska is Professor of Management Studies at the Gothenburg Research Institute. Barbara is currently involved in two major research efforts. The first is a study entitled "Managing Big Cities" and the other is a study of management as the construction and re-construction of action-nets. She has recently been elected to the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences and in 2000 was awarded the Lily and Sven Thuréus Technical-Economic Award for internationally renowned research in organization theory. Her books include A Tale of Three Cities, or the Globalization of City Management, Oxford University Press (2002); Writing Management: Organization Theory as a Literary Genre, Oxford University Press (1999); A Narrative Approach in Organization Studies, SAGE (1998); and Narrating the Organization: Dramas of Institutional Identity, University of Chicago Press (1997).
Niels Dechow is on the faculty of the Said School of Business at the University of Oxford. Prior to that, he was Assistant Professor at the Weatherhead School at Case Western Reserve University. In his teaching, Niels focuses on modern management control techniques and their organizational implications. His research interests cover interorganizational relationships, the integration of formation systems and accounting, and novel approaches to management education. Prior to receiving his PhD from the Copenhagen Business School, Niels worked in the consulting industry in his native Denmark.
Paul Eickmann recently retired as Provost and Vice President for Academic Affairs at the Cleveland Institute of Art. Prior to that, he served as Vice President for Student Affairs at Syracuse University for nine years, while at the same time maintaining his teaching at Syracuse University in its School of Music, Education, Management, and Nursing (music as healing).
Yrjö Engeström is Professor of Adult Education and Director of the Center for Activity Theory and Developmental Work Research at the University of Helsinki. He is also Professor of Communication at the University of California, San Diego. Yrjö is known for his theory of expansive learning and studies transformations in work and organizations, combining microlevel analysis of discourse and interaction wit historical analysis and modeling of organizations as activity systems. His research groups use intervention tools such as the Change Laboratory, inspired by Vygotsky's method of dual stimulation, to facilitate and analyze the redesign of activity systems by practitioners. Yrjö's recent books include Cognition and Communication at Work (edited with David Middleton, 1996) and Collaborative Expertise: Expansive Learning in Medical Work, Cambridge University Press.
Jurgen Faust is Professor and Chair of Technology and Integrated Media (T.I.M.E.) at the Cleveland Institute of Art. Jurgen teaches digital arts and design and 2D/3D design. As a practicing artist and designer, he shows his work widely in Europe and the United States. In 1983, he cofounded a private art school in Germany (Freie Hochschule Metzingen), where he was the codirector for sixteen years and was responsible for the development of several programs. Between 1996 and 1999, he was the acting Dean of New Media. In this position, he designed a new digital art and design program. For many years, he has been working on a theory of sculpture. He applies this theory also in the area of managing organizations.
Kevin Gallagher is a recent PhD from the Weatherhead School who studied under Betty Vandenbosch. He is currently at the University of South Florida.
Frank O. Gehry is one of the most highly renowned architects of our day, and Case is proud to have one of his greatest buildings as the home of its Weatherhead School of Management. In an article published in the New York Times in November 1989, noted architecture critic Paul Goldberger wrote that Mr. Gehry's "buildings are powerful essays in primal geometric form and…materials, and from an aesthetic standpoint they are among the most profound and brilliant works of architecture of our time." Hallmarks of his work include a particular concern that people exist comfortably within the spaces that he creates and an insistence that his buildings address the context and culture of their sites. Frank has won numerous awards for his work, including the Pritzker Architecture Prize in 1989, perhaps the premiere accolade of the field, honoring "significant contributions to humanity and the built environment through the art of architecture."
Joseph A. Goguen has been a Professor in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering at the University of California, San Diego, since January 1996. He is Director of the Meaning and Computation Lab and was previously Director of the Program in Advanced Manufacturing. Prior to that, he was at SRI International holding the positions of Senior Staff Scientist and Senior Member of the Center for the Study of Language and Information at Stanford University. Joseph's research interests include: software engineering; database integration and ontologies; user interface design; theorem proving; discourse analysis; sociology of technology and science; object-oriented, relational, and functional programming and their combinations; semiotics; and fuzzy logic.
Julia Grant is Associate Professor of Accountancy and the Weatherhead School of Management, Case Western Reserve University. She was on the faculty of The Ohio State University prior to joining Weatherhead in 1991. Her research interests include developing a greater understanding of how to effectively use financial information about a firm. These interests have led to several research projects examining the reports of financial analysts and the disclosure policies of corporations. She also has published several papers applying game theoretic social dilemma settings and their effects on group and policy outcomes. Julia has been interviewed concerning various accounting scandals and their aftermath and cited in many national media outlets, including the Wall Street Journal, the New York Times, National Public Radio, Bloomberg News, New Hour with Jim Lehrer, and Business Week.
Keith Hoskin is Professor of Strategy and Accounting at the Warwick Business School. He has studied classics, modern languages, educational psychology, and history and was previously in the field of educational history. There, his major interest was in learning and why we know so little about it and usually fail to talk about it. His interest in how we learn to learn led to an interest in how practices such as writing and examining shape our learning to learn and therefore out categories of "real learning." His major research interests now are in the relation among accounting, accountability, and management practices. This work also leads him into such areas as the nature of sign systems, modes of valuing, and translation. His major current area of work is in the invention of modern management as manifestation of our modern forms of disciplinary practice and is being developed as a book with Richard Macve, Powerful Knowledge.
Mariann Jelinek is at the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia, where she has been Richard C. Kraemer Professor of Business since 1989. She recently completed service as Director of the Innovation and Organizational Change Program at the National Science Foundation, on loan from her regular duties. Her career interests include innovation, technology, and their strategic implications; organization learning; and administrative systems and organization design, which are topics on which she has written extensively. Prior academic appointments include the Weatherhead School of Management at Case Western Reserve University, where she held the Lewis-Progressive Chair; the State University of New York at Albany; McGill University, and Dartmouth College. She is author or coauthor of five books, including Innovation Marathon with C.B. Schoonhoven, and forty papers, including the 1995 "Best Paper of the Year" in Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice.
Sten Jönsson is Professor and Director of the Göteborg Research Institute and is studying communication in multicultural management teams. His research covers a broad spectrum—development and strategy issues (organizational crises, myths as management tools, budget processes) and regulation of good accounting practice; the use of economic information in the management of operations and the interaction between local and central units in large organizations; and most recently, management style and competitiveness and the evaluation of the decentralization reform in the city of Gothenburg. Sten has written more than ten books and published twenty-five articles in leading scientific journals.
Paul Kaiser is a digital artist whose work has been exhibited at Lincoln Center, MASS MoCA, the Barbican Center (London), the Pompidou Center, SIGGRAPH, the Wexner Center for the Arts, and many other venues. He has received numerous awards. Kaiser's early art (1975-81) was in experimental filmmaking and voice audiotapes. He then spent ten years teaching students with severe learning disabilities, with whom he collaborated on making multimedia depictions of their own minds. He later applied this approach to an interactive documentary on Robert Wilson's early work entitled Visionaryof Theater (1994-97). Recent Kaiser has created the virtual dances Hand-drawn Spaces (1998) and BIPED (1999), both with Merce Cunningham and Shelley Eshkar, and Ghostcatching (1999), with Bill T. Jones and Shelley Eshkar. Recent solo works include Flicker-track + Verge (both 1999-2000). Kaiser currently teaches a virtual filmmaking class at Wesleyan University and serves as an Osher Fellow at the Exploratorium Museum in San Francisco.
John Leslie King is Professor and Dean of the School of Information at the University of Michigan. His research includes the problems of developing high-level requirements for information systems design and implementation in strongly institutionalized production sectors. The goal of this work is to improve the design of information technologies and to inform policy and strategy development at the firm, sectoral, and institutional levels. Recent and current projects focus on the role of technical and institutional forces in the coevolutionary development of intermodal transport and logistics, case management in felony criminal courts, global wireline and wireless telephony, and the transition of the automobile industry from product to service sector. New projects include a study of the institutional forces involved in the development of global electronic commerce and a historical analysis of the evolution of the information disciplines.
Alice Kolb is Vice President of Research and Development, Experience Based Learning Systems and Director of The Ohio Consortium on Artistic Learning's longitudinal outcome study of artistic learning.
David Kolb is Professor of Organizational Behavior at the Weatherhead School of Management, the author of Experiential Learning, and the creator of the Learning Style Inventory. His and Alice Kolb's research is focused on development of the theory and practice of experiential learning. Their latest book is Conversational Learning: An Experiential Approach to Knowledge Creation.
Miriam R. Levin is Associate Professor of History at Case Western Reserve University. Her research and teaching interests center on the history of industrial culture, which is a transatlantic phenomenon with global impact. She also works on the history of science education in the United States. She has published several books and articles on this subject. Currently, she is working on a book on the idea of control in the industrial era, as well as editing a collection of essays on that subject by other authors with a foreword by Thomas Hughes.
Jeanne Liedtka is Associate Professor of Business Administration at the Darden School. She also serves as Vice President and Chief Learning Officer for the United Technologies Corporation, designing and directing its education, training, and development programs. Her current research interests involve the diffusion of strategic thinking capabilities to all organizational levels. Liedtka joined the Darden faculty in 1992. She has also taught at Rutgers University, IESE, and Simmons College. Previously she was affiliated with the Boston Consulting Group, Wang Labs, and Johnson & Johnson, Inc.
Kalle Lyytinen is Professor of Information Systems at the Weatherhead School of Management at Case Western Reserve University and an adjunct professor at the University of Jyvaskyla in Finland. He teaches advanced degree students and executives on topics related to systems development, risk management, and electronic and mobile commerce. His educational background includes computer science, accounting, statistics, economics, theoretical philosophy, and political theory. He has published eight books, more than fifty journal articles, and more than eighty conference presentations and book chapters. He is well known for his research in computer-supported system design and modeling, system failures and risk assessment, computer-supported cooperative work, and the diffusion of complex technologies. He is currently researching the development and management of digital services and the evolution of virtual communities.
Wanda J. Orlikowski is Professor of Information Technologies and Organization Studies at MIT's Sloan School of Management and the Eaton-Peabody Chair of Communication Sciences at MIT. She received a PhD from the Stern School of Business at New York University. In examining the organizational changes associated with the use of information technology, Wanda investigates the ongoing relationship between information technologies and organizing structures, work practices, communication, culture, and control mechanisms. She has conducted extensive studies on the use of groupware technologies and electronic media in organizations, and she has explored the social and technological aspects of working virtually. She is currently leading a five-year project on the social and economic implications of Internet technology use in organizations.
Joseph A. Paradiso joined the MIT Media Laboratory in 1994, where he is now Associate Professor of Media Arts and Sciences, directing the Responsive Environments Group. He is an expert on sensing technology for human-computer interfaces, having developed and fielded a wide variety of systems that track human activity using electric field sensing, microwaves, ultra-low-cost laser ranging, passive and active sonar, piezoelectrics, and resonant electromagnetic tags. His work has found application in areas such as interactive music systems, wearable computers, smart highways, and medical instrumentation. He is also serving as codirector of the Things That Think Consortium. In addition to his physics career, Joe has been designing electronic music synthesizers and composing electronic music since 1975, and he has long been active in the avant-garde music scene as a producer of electronic music programs for noncommercial radio. He has built (and still uses) one of the world's largest modular synthesizers and has designed MIDI systems for internationally known musicians such as Pat Metheny and Lyle Mays.
Alan Preston is the former Second Commissioner of Taxation for the Australian Taxation Office. Following an early career as an academic economist, Alan joined the Australian Public Service in 1979. His commitment to design emerged from his professional responsibilities in relation to the Australian taxation system during the period from 1986 until he retired early in 1992. With Richard Buchanan's assistance as design mentor, Alan focuses his tenure as Second Commissioner of Taxation on establishing and consolidating the Integrated Taxation Design Project as the vehicle for implementing the Review's recommendations about tax system design. The objective has been to harness the disciplined creativity of design into the systematic management and delivery of much more satisfying tax system outcomes.
Rikard Stankiewicz is Professor of Science and Technology Governance at the European University Institute in Florence. He studied at Warsaw University and subsequently at Lund University in Sweden where he received a PhD in sociology. In 1998, he became Professor of Science and Technology Policy and the director of Research Policy Institute at Lund University. He has conducted research on the organization and management of research and development in both public and private sectors, university and industry relations, comparative science and technology policy, and technological innovation systems. His most recent research and publications are concerned with the evolutionary models of technological change, science technology-relations, the structure and dynamics of the knowledge base of technology, and the impact of the new biotechnologies on innovation in the healthcare sector.
Lucy Suchman is Professor of Anthropology of Science and Technology at Lancaster University, having come there after twenty years as a researcher at Xerox's Palo Alto Research Center. Her research has centered on relations of ethnographies of everyday practice to new technology design. She draws on ethnomethodological studies of work, science and technology studies, and feminist theorizing, in order to recover the specific, culturally and materially embodied identities, knowledges, and practices that make up technical systems. This involves, among other things, reconstructing technologies from singular objects located at the center of a surrounding social world, to heterogeneous assemblages of socio-material practices. She and her colleagues have engaged in a series of projects sited in particular workplaces (an airport, a large Silicon Valley law fim, a state department of transportation) that combine ethnographic studies of work and technologies-in-use with the in situ development of new prototype information systems.
Alexander Tzonis holds the chair of Architectural Theory and Design Methods at the University of Technology of Delft and is Director of Design Knowledge Systems, a multidisciplinary research center on architectural cognition. He was educated at Yale University and taught at Harvard University between 1967 and 1981. He has held visiting professorships at MIT, Columbia University, and the Universities of Montreal, Strasbourg, Singapore, University of Technology Vienna, the Technion, Israel, and the College de France. Among his publications are The Shape of Community with Serge Chermayeff and Towards a Non-oppressive Environment. He has written more than two hundred articles on architectural theory, history, and design methods.
Betty Vandenbosch is currently Associate Professor of Information Systems at the Weatherhead School of Management. After completing her MBA, Betty spent seven years working for McKinsey and Company in Toronto and Amsterdam, where she consulted with clients on strategic, organizational, operational, and technology issues. Betty then earned a PhD in Management Information Systems from the Ivey School at the University of Western Ontario. Her research investigates how executives use information to learn through mental model development. Betty has just published her first book, Designing Solutions for Your Business Problems.
Ina Wagner is Professor of Multidisciplinary Systems Design and Computer-Supported Co-operative Work and Head of the Institute for Technology Assessment and Design at the Technical University of Vienna. Ina's research reflects a methodological commitment to participatory design and to situated experimentation with prototype solutions in different media. She also engages in sociological research related to work and occupations, organizations and technology, and gender studies. One of her main current interests focuses on the multidisciplinary design of computer systems for architectural design and planning. A particular focus of this research is on understanding the role of different kinds of visual artifacts for cooperative work, in particular, how material and digital artifacts for cooperative work, in particular, how material and digital artifacts can be combined in complex work environments.
Karl E. Weick is the Rensis Likert Distinguished University Professor of Organizational Behavior and Psychology at the University of Michigan. He is among the first researchers to appreciate the roles of metaphor and sensemaking in organizational life. He has written extensively on organizations, change, and the methods we use to research them. Titles such as "The Head Nurse as Quasi-Hippie" and "The Aesthetics of Imperfection in Orchestras and Organizations" hint at the engaging style he brings to understanding complex systems. His book The Social Psychology of Organizing, first published in 1969 and revised in 1979, was designated one of the nine best business books ever written by Inc. Magazine. His current research interests include collective sensemaking under pressure, medical errors, handoffs in extreme events, high reliability performance, improvisation, and continuous change.
Youngjin Yoo is Associate Professor of Information Systems at the Weatherhead School of Management. He holds a PhD in information systems from the University of Maryland. He received his MBA and BS in Business Administration from Seoul National University in Seoul, Korea. His research interests include knowledge management in global learning organizations, pervasive computing, and the design of socio-technical information environments for large organizations.