The Supreme Court Battle over Privacy and Press Freedom
Samantha Barbas



Manuscript Collections

Abe Fortas Papers, Manuscripts & Archives, Yale University.

John Marshall Harlan Papers, Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library, Princeton University.

William J. Brennan Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress.

William O. Douglas Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress.

Byron R. White Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress.

Potter Stewart Papers, Manuscripts & Archives, Yale University.

Wilderness Years (1962–1968) Collection, Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum.

Tom C. Clark Papers, Tarlton Law Library, Jamail Center for Legal Research, University of Texas School of Law.

Earl Warren Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress.

Hugo LaFayette Black Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress.

Leonard Garment Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress.

Joseph Arnold Hayes Papers, Lilly Library Manuscript Collections, Indiana University.

Adolph Ochs Papers, Manuscripts and Archives Division, New York Public Library.

Arthur Hays Sulzberger Papers, Manuscripts and Archives Division, New York Public Library.

Books and Articles

Abraham, Kenneth S. The Liability Century: Insurance and Tort Law from the Progressive Era to 9/11. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2008.

Adams, Elbridge. “The Right of Privacy and Its Relation to the Law of Libel.” American Law Review 39 (1905): 37–58.

Adler, Sheldon S. “Toward a Constitutional Theory of Individuality: The Privacy Jurisprudence of Justice Douglas.” Yale Law Journal 87 (1978): 1579–1600.

Aitken, Jonathan. Nixon: A Life. Washington, D.C.: Regnery Publishing, 1996.

Albig, William. “Good and Evil from the Press.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 280 (March 1952): 113.

Alexander, George J. “Free Expression and the Law of Torts.” Syracuse Law Review 19 (1967): 457–77.

Alfred Politz Research. A Study of Four Media. New York: Time, Inc., 1953.

Ambrose, Stephen E. Nixon. 3 vols. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1987.

Anderson, David. “Freedom of the Press.” Texas Law Review 80 (2002): 429–530.

. “The Origins of the Press Clause.” UCLA Law Review 30 (1982): 455–541.

Ashdown, Gerald. “Journalism Police.” Marquette Law Review 89 (2008): 739–60.

Aucoin, James L. The Evolution of American Investigative Journalism. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2006.

Baker, C. Edwin. “The Independent Significance of the Press Clause under Existing Law.” Hofstra Law Review 35 (2007): 955–1026.

Ball, Howard. Hugo L. Black: Cold Steel Warrior. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

. The Supreme Court in the Intimate Lives of Americans: Birth, Sex, Marriage, Childrearing, and Death. New York: New York University Press, 2004.

Banta, Ray. Indiana’s Laughmakers: The Story of over 400 Hoosiers: Actors, Cartoonists, Writers, and Others. Indianapolis: PennUltimate Press, 1990.

Barbas, Samantha. “The Death of the Public Disclosure Tort: A Historical Perspective.” Yale Journal of Law and Humanities 22 (2010): 171–215.

. “From Privacy to Publicity: The Tort of Appropriation in the Age of Mass Consumption.” Buffalo Law Review 61 (2013): 1119–90.

Barron, James H. “Warren and Brandeis, The Right to Privacy, 4. Harv. L. Rev. 193 (1890): Demystifying a Landmark Citation.” Suffolk University Law Review 13 (1979): 875–922.

Battan, Jesse. “‘The New Narcissism’ in 20th Century America: The Shadow and Substance of Social Change.” Journal of Social History 17 (1983): 199–220.

Baughman, James. Henry Luce and the Rise of the American News Media. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.

. “Who Reads Life?” In Looking at Life Magazine, edited by Erika Doss. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian, 2001.

Beaney, William. “The Griswold Case and the Expanding Right to Privacy.” Wisconsin Law Review 64 (1965): 976–95.

Bell, Bernard W. “Judging in Interesting Times: The Free Speech Clause Jurisprudence of Justice Byron R. White.” Catholic University Law Review 52 (2003): 893–914.

Belli, Melvin. Ready for the Plaintiff. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1956.

Belknap, Michal R. The Supreme Court under Earl Warren, 1953–1969. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2005.

Bent, Silas. Ballyhoo: The Voice of the Press. New York: Boni & Liveright, 1927.

Berman, Daniel M. “Mr. Justice Brennan: A Preliminary Appraisal.” Catholic University Law Review 7 (1958): 1–15.

Bertelsman, William O. “The First Amendment and Protection of Reputation and Privacy—New York Times Co. v. Sullivan and How It Grew.” Kentucky Law Journal 56 (1967–1968): 718–56.

Bezanson, Randall. “The Libel Tort Today.” Washington and Lee Law Review 45 (1988): 535–56.

Bezanson, Randall P., Gilbert Cranberg, and John Soloski. Libel Law and the Press: Myth and Reality. New York: Free Press, 1987.

Bird, George, and Frederic Merwin, eds. The Newspaper and Society. New York: Prentice Hall, 1942.

Black, Hugo L. “The Bill of Rights.” New York University Law Review 35 (1960): 865–81.

Black, Hugo L., and Elizabeth Black. Mr. Justice and Mrs. Black: The Memoirs of Hugo L. Black and Elizabeth Black. New York: Random House, 1988.

Black, Hugo, and Edmond Cahn. “Mr. Justice Black and First Amendment Absolutes: A Public Interview.” New York University Law Review 37 (1962): 549–63.

Blanchard, Margaret A. “The Institutional Press and Its First Amendment Privileges.” Supreme Court Review 1978 (1978): 227–28.

. Revolutionary Sparks: Freedom of Expression in Modern America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Bledstein, Burton. The Culture of Professionalism: The Middle Class and the Development of Higher Education in America. New York: Norton, 1976.

Bloustein, Edward J. “Privacy as an Aspect of Human Dignity: An Answer to Dean Prosser.” New York Law Review 39 (1964): 156–202.

Bloustein, Edward. “Privacy, Tort Law, and the Constitution: Is Warren and Brandeis’ Tort Petty and Unconstitutional as Well?” Texas Law Review 46 (1968): 611–29.

Bond, Fraser. An Introduction to Journalism. New York: Macmillan, 1954.

Botein, Bernard. “The People’s Right to Know.” Harvard Law Review 67 (1954): 920–22.

. Trial Judge: The Candid Behind-the-Bench Story of Justice Botein. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1952.

Breed, Warren. “Mass Communication and Socio Cultural Integration.” Social Forces 37 (1958): 109–16.

Breines, Wini. Young, White, and Miserable: Growing up Female in the Fifties. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.

Brennan, William J. Jr. “The Supreme Court and the Meiklejohn Interpretation of the First Amendment.” Harvard Law Review 79 (1965): 1–20.

Brenton, Myron. The Privacy Invaders. New York: Coward & McCann, 1964.

Brinkley, Alan. The Publisher: Henry Luce and His American Century. New York: Vintage Books, 2011.

Brinkley, Douglas, and Luke Nichter. The Nixon Tapes 1973. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2015.

Brinkley, William. The Fun House. New York: Random House, 1961.

Brodie, Fawn M. Richard Nixon: The Shaping of His Character. New York: Norton, 1981.

Brown, Henry Billings. “The Liberty of the Press.” American Law Review 34 (1900): 321–41.

Bruggemier, Gert, Aurelia Colombi Ciacchi, and Patrick O’Callaghan, eds. Personality Rights in European Tort Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Buchanan, Pat. The Greatest Comeback: How Richard Nixon Rose From Defeat to Create the New Majority. New York: Crown Publishing 2015.

Burress, Lee. Battle of the Books: Literary Censorship in the Public Schools, 1950–1985. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1989.

Burton, John P. Jr. “Privacy and the Press.” Harvard Legal Commentary 4 (1967): 89–98.

Bush, Chilton Rowlette. Newspaper Reporting of Public Affairs: An Advanced Course in Newspaper Reporting and a Manual for Professional Newspaper Men. New York: D. Appleton, 1940.

Caplan, Lincoln. Skadden: Power, Money, and the Rise of a Legal Empire. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1994.

Carlson, Allan C. “Luce, Life, and the American Way.” This World (Winter 1986): 56–74.

Cashman, Sean. America in the Twenties and Thirties: The Olympian Age of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. New York: New York University Press, 1989.

Chafee, Zechariah. “Book Review.” In Essays in Constitutional Law, edited by Robert G. McCloskey. New York: Random House, 1957.

Champlin, Charles. A Life in Writing: The Story of an American Journalist. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2006.

Channing, Carol. Just Lucky I Guess. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2002.

Christians, Clifford G., John P. Ferré, and P. Mark Fackler, Good News: Social Ethics and the Press. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Clemons, L. S. “Right of Privacy in Relation to the Publication of Photographs.” Marquette Law Review 14 (1930): 193–98.

Clurman, Richard. Beyond Malice: The Media’s Years of Reckoning. New York: Transaction Books, 1988.

“Comment, Privacy, Defamation, and the First Amendment: The Implications of Time, Inc. v. Hill.” Columbia Law Review 67 (May 1967): 926–52.

“Comment, Time, Inc. v. Hill.” Chicago-Kent Law Review 44 (1967): 58–63.

“Constitutional Law.” Texas Law Review 45 (1966–1967): 758–65.

“Constitutional Law–State Cannot Award Damages for Invasion of Privacy without Proof of Actual Malice.” North Carolina Law Review 45 (1967): 740–47.

Commission on Freedom of the Press. A Free and Responsible Press: A General Report on Mass Communication: Newspapers, Radio, Motion Pictures, Magazines and Books. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1947.

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Corwin, Edward S. “Freedom of Speech and Press under the First Amendment: A Résumé.” Yale Law Journal 30 (1920): 48–55.

Cort, David. The Sin of Henry Luce: An Anatomy of Journalism. New York: Lyle Stuart, 1974.

Cravens, Hamilton, ed. The Social Sciences Go to Washington: The Politics of Knowledge in the Postmodern Age. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2004.

Cray, Ed. Chief Justice: A Biography of Earl Warren. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997.

Cullinan, Eustace. “The Rights of Newspapers: May They Print Whatever They Choose?” ABA Journal 41 (1955): 1020–23.

Curtis, Michael Kent. Free Speech: The People’s Darling Privilege. Raleigh, NC: Duke University Press, 2000.

DeFleur, Melvin. “How Massive Are the Mass Media? Implications for Communications Education and Research.” Syracuse Scholar 10 (1990): 1–21.

Deutsch, Eberhard P. “Freedom of the Press and of the Mails.” Michigan Law Review 36 (1938): 703–51.

“Developments in the Law: Defamation.” Harvard Law Review 69 (1956): 875–959.

Dickler, Gerald. “Right of Privacy—A Proposed Redefinition.” United States Law Review 70 (1936): 435–56.

Dixon, Robert G. “The Griswold Penumbra: Constitutional Charter for an Expanded Law of Privacy?” Michigan Law Review 64 (1965): 197–218.

Doan, Edward. “The Newspaper and the Right of Privacy.” Journal of the Bar Association of Kansas 5 (1937): 203–61.

Donovan, Hedley. Right Places, Right Times. New York: Touchstone, 1991.

Douglas, William. The Right of the People. New York: Doubleday, 1958.

Easton, Eric. “The Colonel’s Finest Campaign: Robert R. McCormick and Near v. Minnesota.” Federal Communications Law Journal 60 (2008): 183–228.

Eisler, Kim Isaac. The Last Liberal: Justice William J. Brennan, Jr. and the Decisions That Transformed America. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993.

Elson, Robert. Time, Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise, vol. 2. New York: Atheneum, 1968.

Emerson, Thomas I. “Nine Justices in Search of a Doctrine.” Michigan Law Review 64 (1965): 219–34.

. “Towards a General Theory of the First Amendment.” Yale Law Journal 72 (1963): 877–956.

Engel, David. “Perception and Decision at the Threshold of Tort Law: Explaining the Infrequency of Claims.” DePaul Law Review 62 (2013): 293–94.

Ernst, Morris. The First Freedom. New York: Macmillan, 1946.

Evans, Thomas W. “Mudge Rose Guthrie Alexander & Ferdon.” Unpublished manuscript, n.d.

Farber, David. The Age of Great Dreams: America in the 1960s. New York: Hill and Wang, 1994.

Fielding, Raymond. “Time Flickers Out: Notes on the Passing of the March of Time.” Quarterly of Film, Radio, and Television 11 (1957): 354–61.

Frank, Jeffrey. Ike and Dick: Portrait of a Strange Political Marriage. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2013.

Frank, John P. “Mr. Justice Black, a Biographical Appreciation.” Yale Law Journal 65 (1956): 454–63.

Franklin, Marc. “A Constitutional Problem in Privacy Protection: Legal Inhibition on Reporting of Fact.” Stanford Law Review 107 (1963): 107–48.

Forde, Kathy Roberts. “Libel, Freedom of the Press, and the New Yorker.” American Journalism 23 (2006): 61–91.

Forde, Kathy Roberts. Literary Journalism on Trial: Masson v. New Yorker and the First Amendment. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2008.

Friedman, Lawrence. The Republic of Choice: Law, Authority, and Culture. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1998.

Gajda, Amy. The First Amendment Bubble: How Privacy and Paparazzi Threaten a Free Press. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2015.

. “What If Samuel D. Warren Hadn’t Married a Senator’s Daughter? Uncovering the Press Coverage That Led to ‘the Right to Privacy.’Michigan State Law Review 2008 (2008): 35–60.

Garment, Leonard. Crazy Rhythm: From Brooklyn and Jazz to Nixon’s White House, Watergate, and Beyond. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press, 1997.

. “The Hill Case.” New Yorker, April 17, 1989.

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Gleason, Timothy W. The Watchdog Concept: The Press and the Courts in Nineteenth Century America. Ames: Iowa State University, 1990.

Goldstein, Tom. Killing the Messenger: 100 Years of Media Criticism. New York: Columbia University Press, 2007.

Gormley, Ken. “One Hundred Years of Privacy.” Wisconsin Law Review 1992 (1992): 1335–1442.

Graham, Fred. “Time Inc. v. Hill: A Future President Makes His Case.” In A Good Quarrel: America’s Top Legal Reporters Share Stories from Inside the Supreme Court, edited by Timothy R. Johnson and Jerry Goldman. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2009.

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Hall, Kermit, and Melvin Urofsky. New York Times v. Sullivan: Civil Rights, Libel Law and the Free Press. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2011.

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Hayes, Arthur. Press Critics are the Fifth Estate: Media Watchdogs in America. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2008.

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